Hong Kong civic education teachers’ understanding of national education and their teaching methodology. In their online video, Anonymous members claimed responsibility for leaking classified government documents and taking down the National Education Centre website after the Hong Kong government repeatedly ignored months of wide-scale protests against the establishment of the subject. Some youth put their health at risk by going on hunger strike outside the government headquarters for days and days to illustrate the intensity of their anger, although some critics believed that political parties paid students for going on strike. It then examines in more detail: parental influence at home – the Confucian moral source in Chinese family; schooling influenced by religious sources – taking … In Hong Kong, Moral and Civic Education (MCE) has been regarded as one of the most important factors for whole-person development (CDC, 2002). It was a milestone for civic education in Hong Kong… 2, pp. (2012, August 31). , Moreover, there have been divergent views towards Moral, Civic, and National Education among the community-at-large and the official website of the Education Bureau of the HKSAR Government. , In mid-September 2012, Anonymous hackers threatened the Hong Kong government organisation National Education Services Centre. George Washington University. , According to the revised Moral and National Education Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 to Secondary 6) (MNE Guide) published in June 2012, the subject has the following aims:, Education Bureau (EB) claims that Moral, Civic and National Education is "an essential element of whole-person education which aims at fostering students' positive values and attitudes through the school curriculum and the provision of diversified learning experiences". Hence, we have a saying: “Hong Kong people have dual feelings towards China, both hatred and loving emotions.”,  Branson, M.S. It also claims to "enhance" students' commitments and contributions to analyse and judge personal, family, social, national and global issues. Constructions of civic education: Hong Kong teachers’ perceptions of moral, civic and national education. Schools in Hong Kong always attach great importance to moral and civic education, and seek to cultivate students' positive values and attitudes (e.g. The HKSAR Government planned to implement the reform in various stages by initially introducing a new subject in primary schools in 2012 and then in secondary schools in 2013. Chinese Central Government, the Hong Kong SAR Government, pro-Chinese political parties, educators, and students, on one side, and demonstrators against them, on another side. Moreover, there have been divergent views towards Moral, Civic, and National Education among the community-at-large and the official website of the Education Bureau of the HKSAR Government. of school education. This course focuses on how youth develop moral and civic values in Hong Kong from an interdisciplinary and global perspective. Back to square one: The re-depoliticizing of civic education in Hong Kong. ( Log Out / Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education: Vol. Most of the Hong Kong citizens always distinguish themselves from the Mainland Chinese. Leung, C.-H. and Chan, H.Y. The BBC. The influence from China overall will be further intensified in the coming decades. Yes! The group is known for being one of the few organisations that protested outside the Central Government Liaison Office after the 1 July March 2012. The Education Bureau (EDB) has planned to make "moral and national education" an independent subject and fully implement it in secondary and primary schools in Hong Kong in the 2013-2014 school year; and as early as in 2001, moral and civic education had already been identified as one of the four key tasks in the curriculum reform. , Resistance to the MNE was documented in the 2014 film, Lessons in Dissent. As students during the British colonial era, however, we did not study anything about a national identity associated with China. Various terms have been used to define civic education (CE) in Hong Kong since the colonial era.  The goal is to engage citizens to be actively involved in the governance or politics and cultivate their positive attitudes towards their own country. To cultivate in students a sense of belonging to Hong Kong and China so that they are able to … Mixed methods were employed to examine teachers’ perceptions of different conceptions of CE expressed as moral, civic and national education. After the return of Hong Kong to China, promoting national education and increasing students’ understanding of their country and national identity have become the common goals of primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. 8 No. Various terms have been used to define civic education (CE) in Hong Kong since the colonial era. Organisers said … Primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong have been very supportive of MNE. The website says that the new subject could develop students’ ability to analyze and judge issues relating to personal, family, social, national, and global issues at different developmental stages, and increase their motivation to make commitment and contribution. The main reason for this controversy was that people in Hong Kong have been suffering from an identity crisis after a century of British rule. Retrieved on April 4, 2014, from http://www.gwu.edu/~ccps/pop_civ.html,  Liu, J. Introduction Hong Kong had become a British colony since 1842 by the Treaty of Nanking. Encourage students to care for Hong Kong, and cultivate among students a stronger sense of belonging to China and be aware of their national identity. Its vice president Cheung Man-kwong claims that introduction of MNE is a political action ordered by the central government of the People's Republic of China. Delivering Civic Education in Hong Kong 3 modes of civic education curricula (Kerr 1999; Torney-Purta et al, 1999; Birzea et al, 2004). In the questionnaire, one of the questions directly asks about the self-perception of identity among the people of Hong Kong, with the following multiple choices available as a possible response: “Hong Kong Citizen,” “Chinese Citizen,” “Hong Kong Chinese Citizen,” “Chinese Hong Kong Citizen,” “Other,” “Don’t Know / hard to say,” or “Refuse to answer.”. Following the serious resistance and criticism from the broader community, the government finally was willing to delay the introduction of the new school subject by suggesting a three-year trial run period, allowing the schools to start, at the latest, in 2015 after consultation and major amendments of some sensitive terms.  On 1 September, an open concert was held as part of the protest, with an attendance of 40,000; guest performers at the protest include RubberBand, C AllStar, Wong Ka Keung, Anthony Wong and others. It focuses on a broad conception of moral and civic education: an education that prepares young people to live in Hong Kong society, as well as in a world which is seen as fast-paced, dynamic, and sometimes threatening. Authors: Wong, Koon Lin The Education University of Hong Kong; Lee, Chi Kin John The Education University of Hong Kong; Chan, Kin Sang Jacqueline The Education University of Hong Kong; Kennedy, Kerry John The Education University of Hong Kong; Source: …  For example, the inclusion of a new requirement for all schools to provide 39 hours of Basic Law education at the junior secondary level,  or plans to make Chinese history a compulsory subject at senior secondary level. During the event the three hunger-strikers ended their hunger strike, and were succeeded by a team of ten other hunger-strikers. After handover to the Chinese regime in 1997, we have witnessed a series of ongoing clashes between Hong Kong and Mainland China in political, economic, and cultural aspects. Members of the political body are its citizens and membership implies participation. , This education reform literally reflected how little trust Hong Kong citizens have in the Chinese Central government. Citizens’ participation in a democratic society must be based on informed, critical reflection, and on the understanding and acceptance of the rights and responsibilities that go with that membership. The Education University of Hong Kong . Moral, Civic and National Education is an essential element of whole-person education which aims at fostering students' positive values and attitudes through the learning and teaching of various Key Learning Areas/subjects and the provision of relevant learning experiences.  The protesters firmly believed that the main political motivation behind Chinese Central Government in Beijing was to use Moral, Civic, and National Education as a tool to “brainwash” the citizens in Hong Kong with its communist ideology. Retrieved on April 4, 2014, from http://www.cnn.com/2012/07/30/world/asia/hong-kong-national-education-controversy/,  University of Hong Kong (2014). Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. ", "Why are Hong Kong teachers so concerned about Basic Law education? Moral, Civic and National Education. Fifty members occupied the public park beneath the government offices, of which three began a hunger strike. Moral and civic education was one of the four key tasks in the 2001 curriculum reform undertaken by the Education and Manpower Bureau (superseded by the Education Bureau in 2007), and its framework was revised by the Education Bureau in 2008. Constructions of civic education: Hong Kong teachers' perceptions of moral, civic and national education. On 13 October 2010, Chief Executive Donald Tsang stated in the "Policy Address 2010–2011" that moral and national education would replace MCE to "strengthen national education". Retrieved on April 4, 2014, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-19407425,  Lai, A. The areas will include current issues, moral education, national education, life education, values education, basic law education, health education, sex education, environmental education, and human rights education. A brief review of the social and educational context of Hong Kong shows that the publication of the "General guidelines on moral education in schools" in 1981, by the Hong Kong Education … The subject was controversial for its stance on the Communist Party of China and criticism of the United States two-party system.. Mixed methods were employed to examine teachers' perceptions of different conceptions of CE expressed as moral, civic and national education. On 29 July 2012, 30 organisations protested in a march. Since 2001, Moral and Civic Education has been accorded as one of the four Key Tasks under the Curriculum Reform to cultivate students' positive values and attitudes (Priority values include "Perseverance", "Respect for Others", "Responsibility", "National Identity" and "Commitment"). It seemed that Education Bureau of the HKSAR Government has included civic education in a very subtle way. Primary students of Key Stages (KS) 1 and 2 are developing from the “heteronomous stage”, at which they are obedient to the rules so as to avoid being punished, to the “autonomous stage”, … Teachers’ comprehension of these terms has policy and pedagogical implications. South China Morning Post Publishers Ltd. Retrieved on April 4, 2014, from http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/article/1056653/controversial-guidelines-national-education-shelved,  Education Bureau of the HKSAR Government (2014). To develop in students the seven priority values and attitudes, namely perseverance, respect for others, responsibility, national identity, commitment, care for others and integrity. . (2017). Moral and national education Traditional Chinese Annually, the University of Hong Kong implements a public survey through Public Opinion Program to keep track of the progress of the citizens’ identity. Moral and national education (MNE), initially known as Moral and civic education (MCE), was a school curriculum proposed by the Education Bureau of Hong Kong in 2012. At the very least, we have to deal with the influx of increasingly large numbers of Mainland Chinese tourists every day. The initial planned length of the occupation was three days. This course …  Notwithstanding a gradual implementation approach, there have been waves of demonstrations by parents, teachers, and students. 7 September 2012. Some countries may refer to it as “Citizenship Education” or “National Education.” According to Branson and Quigley (1998), civic education in a democracy is education to encourage citizens to become actively involved in their own governance. "Road closures a flashpoint during tense marches", Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements in China, Moral and National Education Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 to Secondary 6), "Record-high turnout for anti-national education protests", "CE shelves national education guidelines after panel report", "Is national education set to make a comeback in Hong Kong? Hong Kong Protestors of National Education Wary of Integration with Mainland China. This has been particularly true since 2011, when CE has been given many names, causing confusion among educators. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Advocates from 91 Countries Call on Governments to Stop Education Profiteers | Peri Global, Let’s Change the Debate and Encourage the Right Kind of Charter. Moral and national education (MNE), initially known as Moral and civic education (MCE), was a school curriculum proposed by the Education Bureau of Hong Kong in 2012. First and foremost, it is the unanimous view of the Committee on the Initiation of Moral and National Education Subject that moral, nationaland civic education is an important facet of school education, and that whole-person development should include knowledge about one's country, understanding of one's national identity and awareness of such core values as inclusiveness and diversity in the wider society. , On September 8, Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying announced that he would temporary withdraw introducing the national education course, until the revising of the Moral, Civil and National education guidelines which has caused many concerns to many Hongkongers, has been addressed. Ideally, democracy is fully realized when every member of the political community shares in its governance. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. 17(2), 139 – 158. The Education Bureau stated that it is to cultivate “positive values and attitudes” in students. Journal of Moral Education, v33 n4 p533-551 Dec 2004. Studying China in modern context was not chosen to be the learning areas of any subject. Not surprisingly, the introduction of Moral, Civic, and National Education into Hong Kong’s public school curriculums through Chief Executive Donald Tsang’s “Policy Address 2010-2011” has raised a lot of controversy in the society, especially in the academic arena. 217-232. Retrieved on April 4, 2014, from http://hkupop.hku.hk/english/popexpress/qre/tp1312075_18.html,  Lai, A. Moral and civic education is a key aim of the Hong Kong English language education curriculum. We can see that education is a powerful socialized tool to influence one’s mind. In July 2012, the "Civil Alliance Against the National Education" (民間反對國民教育科大聯盟) was formed by 15 organisations, including Scholarism, Parents' Concern Group, PTU, Hong Kong Federation of Students, Alliance Youth, Civil Human Rights Front and others. More and more conflicts between these two places have surfaced with the massive coverage of media every day.  Following the serious resistance and criticism from the broader community, the government finally was willing to delay the introduction of the new school subject by suggesting a three-year trial run period, allowing the schools to start, at the latest, in 2015 after consultation and major amendments of some sensitive terms. In other words, citizens should have critical mindset and not just passively accept the demands of others. It seemed that Education Bureau of the HKSAR Government has included civic education in a very subtle way. Retrieved on April 4, 2014, from http://www.ibtimes.com/hong-kong-protesters-national-education-wary-integration-mainland-china-780011, such an ambivalent feeling of HK people! 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