Your need for sleep and your sleep patterns change as you age, but this varies significantly across individuals of the same age. Descartes proposed the idea of cogito ergo sum ("I think, therefore I am"), suggested that the very act of thinking demonstrates the reality of one’s existence and consciousness. Whether periods of unconsciousness occur in sleep alongside dreaming and dreamless sleep experience is, in our view, an open empirical question. As it sounds, arousal is when a person becomes ‘aroused’ to some extent during the sleep cycle. During times of conscious shifting you will find that there are interruptions in sleep patterns. Sleep has fascinated researchers, scientists and scholars for thousands of years. A mildly depressed level of consciousness or alertness may be classed as lethargy; someone in this state can be aroused with little difficulty. One of the more common states […] In addition, the composition of each cycle — how much time is spent in each sleep stage — changes as the night goes along. Sleep, like other states of consciousness, is unique to each individual.The stages of sleep, however, follow a similar pattern. Sleep disorders include insomnia, narcolepsy, and sleep … The brain consumes as much energy during sleep as it does when we are awake. What, then, is the best method for doing this? When we are anesthetized before an operation or experience a concussion after a knock on the head, we may lose consciousness entirely as a result of changes in brain activity. One important regulator of sleep-wake cycles is the hormone melatonin. It is during the waking moments that the mind begins to feel as if it’s receiving information from something deeper. During REM sleep, heart rate and breathing become irregular, eyes move rapidly, and muscles relax. At the far end of the consciousness continuum are unconscious states such as sleep. Human beings have used meditation, medication, religious rituals, sleep deprivation, and numerous other means to alter their levels of everyday awareness. As the researchers explain: "This is not to claim that conscious mental activity continues throughout sleep. The origin of consciousness is one of the great unanswered questions of our time. However, sleep is not a rest for the brain as a whole. The pineal gland , an endocrine structure located inside the brain that releases melatonin, is thought to be involved in the regulation of various biological rhythms and of the immune system during sleep (Hardeland, Pandi-Perumal, & Cardinali, 2006). For example, most people sleep during the night and are awake during the day. In brain death, even your reflexes stop.Psychology is less concerned withthese levels of consciousness, as they appear to be more in the realm of physiological science. 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