The Capitoline Hill, opposite the Palatine, emerged as the city’s citadel (arx) and site of the poliadic cult of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, among others (poliadic: the chief civic cult of an ancient city, derived from the Greek word “polis”). You see the same three columns over here, and then you’ll recall the great open space, with colonnades on either side, and then the market area, the shops or tabernae on the left. They start to build forts and city walls, in which they put buildings with Roman amenities. Here we have it as a more integral part of the forum, and perpendicular to the main space here. It’s important for us to look back at the general plan of the Imperial Fora, to see where the Forum of Trajan fits in. The figures that are in the uppermost tier, of the main body of the forum, are depictions of captured Dacians; of Dacian prisoners brought back to Rome. This is the most famous street, from the Markets of Trajan. He puts a temple to his patron goddess, Minerva, in that forum. But you can see the extraordinary difference in scale. In the middle ages the fora were spaces re-used for building materials, housing, industry, and burials. T. J. Luce, “Livy, Augustus, and the Forum Augustum.” in Between Republic and Empire, ed. The column was the first of many such monuments and it is also an invaluable source of information on the Roman Army and a lasting testimony to the Roman love of … Pompey the Great, a political rival of Caesar, had dedicated a monumental theater and portico complex in the Campus Martius in 55 B.C.E. In his play Curculio, the Latin playwright Plautus offers perhaps one of the most comprehensive and insightful descriptions of the Forum Romanum ever written (ll. And that makes a lot of sense, again given that you could view it best from the two libraries on either side. Throughout the Forum of Trajan the theme of military victory, and its celebration, permeate the monumental decorative programs. and Constantinian investment in the early fourth century C.E., the forum and its environs began to decline and decay. The column shaft rests on a base, decorated with arms and armor, Dacian arms and armor, with a statue of Trajan up at the–a bronze statue of Trajan at the uppermost part. You’ll remember that even though it was restored by Domitian and Trajan, it has fallen on hard times. The sixth century B.C.E. We’ve talked about the clerestory before. Study 46 Arch 412 Midterm 1 flashcards from Connor S. on StudyBlue. You can see how skilled they are in using ramps, with polygonal masonry, as well as sidewalks and stairs, so that you can make your way up with either alternative here. G. Lugli, Fontes ad topographiam veteris urbis Romae pertinentes. What is its ancestor? I mentioned that they had casts of all the scenes from the Column of Trajan. (dedicated in 2 B.C.E.). Temple of Venus Genetrix frieze wtih Cupids, Forum of Julius Caesar / Photo by Carole Raddato, Wikimedia Commons. If it’s open–it periodically closes, sometimes, if things are falling down–but if it’s open, that’s how one gets there. And then all the other rooms of the bath were displayed around those, in a symmetrical way. But you can see how well preserved they are here. The Forum Romanum in the Late Republican period: 1) Tabularium; 2)Temple of Concord; 3) Basilica Opimia; 4)Tullianum; 5) Basilica Porcia; 6) Curia and Comitium; 7) Temple of Saturn; 8) Senaculum; 9) Volcanal; 10) Lacus Curtius; 11) Basilica Sempronia; 12) Basilica Fulvia; 13) Shrine of Venus Cloacina; 14) Temple of the Castors; 15)Fountain of Juturna; 16) Temple of Vesta; 17) Regia (Source image, CC BY-SA 3.0). wreaked considerable damage on remaining Roman monuments in the forum and in its environs. Trajan died the 8 August AD 117, on the 9th it was announced at Antioch that he had adopted Hadrian. The emperor Constantius II, visiting Rome in the mid-fourth century C.E., was amazed by the Forum of Trajan, something he considered “a construction unique under the heavens” (Ammianus Marcellinus 16.10.15). Columns and relief sculpture, Forum Transitorium (Forum of Nerva), c. 97 C.E. Title: Forum of Trajan (Above: Basilica Ulpia interior, top right: Basilica Ulpia exterior,bottom right: Trajan markets) Artist: Apollodorus of Damascus Date: 106 - 112 C.E. Yale University, Marble bust portrait of Nerva, c.96-98 A.D. / National Museum of Rome. The Romans get there, what do they do? Cupids, frieze-architrave, Temple of Venus Genetrix, Forum of Julius Caesar, 113 C.E., marble (Mercati di Traiano Museo dei Fori Imperiali). He has a knife in his hand. God who inhabits the woodlands,patron of shepherds ; saidto have invented the “shepheards pipes” “panpipes” or “syrinx” ... -Apollodorus of Damascus, forum of trajan, Rome-Restore plan and interior view of the Basilica Ulpia-Composite capital, from the Basilica Ulpia. R. Ulrich, “Julius Caesar and the Creation of the Forum Iulium,” American Journal of Archaeology 97.1:49-80. The successes of Rome and her growing empire during the second and first centuries B.C.E. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010). F. Coarelli, Il foro romano, 2 v. (Rome: Edizioni Quasar, 1983-1992). After this point, we’ll see that the emperor Hadrian consolidates the extent of the Empire, as reached by Trajan, and no one ever takes it beyond that. They have their hands around something; we think these were probably spears that were added in metal, originally. You enter from there, into N, which is a natatio or swimming pool; a piscina. You can identify them by their leggings and tunics and scraggly hair and beards, here. Proceeds are donated to charity. ),” Journal of Roman Archaeology 7:274-6. Up above, once again, a chariot, in this case a four-horse chariot, seemingly with one figure, and a series of standards, being held, possibly by Roman soldiers. The Imperial fora represent important architectural landscapes in the city of Rome. Why was he motivated to do that? And if we look at it here, we see some interesting things. Enter your email address to receive notifications of new posts by email. Systematic exploration and study began under archaeologist Carlo Fea who started to clear the area near the Arch of Septimius Severus in 1803. So some hanky-panky was going on behind the scenes. And then otherwise we saw here the rest of the precinct, with an elaborate entranceway over here. He was only 45 years of age–a couple of years younger than Obama–and consequently he was in–and he was in very good physical shape, and so he had the physical wherewithal to be the kind of energetic emperor that Rome needed at this particular point. They start to build walls with headers and stretchers. As Augustus had emerged as the sole leader of the Roman state, it was important for him to create and display messages of continuity and stability. And actually that one, the one that’s up here, actually has niches in the wall, with shelves, which indicates to us that that was used as one of the libraries. The Pantheon in Rome is a true architectural wonder. Trajan follows suit. PATRON/AUDIENCE (who was it made for? It’s highly likely, because what forum have we seen, without a temple at the short end? We saw it in the House of the Mosaic Atrium, for example, the clerestory, which is the opening up of the wall, in this case through Ionic columns, to see the vistas that lie beyond, and to let light into the structure. This is a model of the Forum of Trajan, as it would have looked in antiquity, with that convex entranceway; the location of the equestrian statue, the exedrae on either side here. This required several transformations, both of human activity and the natural environment. View of the Forum from the slope of the Capitoline to the Palatine Hill, By Dr. Jeffrey A. Becker / 12.09.2015 I can also show you here the Palazzo Venezia. Trajan was restoring Julius Caesar’s Forum, at the same time he’s building his own. What’s interesting here is in the second story you see arcuated elements. And we see the Roman soldiers building cities in many of these scenes. This frieze, as far as we can tell, does belong to the Trajanic renovation of the building, but it probably does look back to an earlier Julian frieze that decorated the original temple in Rome. A pedestrian walkway, the Via Alessandrina, also allows for an excellent (and free) view of Trajan's Forum. The Column of Trajan, inaugurated in 113 C.E., is a main feature of the Forum of Trajan and is, in its own right, a masterwork of Roman art. S. Baiani et al., Crypta Balbi-Fori imperiali: archeologia urbana a Roma e interventi di restauro nell’anno del Grande Giubileo (Rome: Kappa, 2000). A. Ziółkowski, Sacra Via: twenty years after (Journal of Juristic Papyrology, Supplement; 3), (Warsaw: Fundacja im. emperor trajan. Ongoing archaeological fieldwork may yet shed light on this contentious topographical debate. Study continued during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with prominent scholars including Rodolfo Lanciani, Giacomo Boni, Einar Gjerstad, and Andrea Carandini, among others, leading major campaigns. To complete the narrative cycle, statues of famous Romans of the Republican period adorned the attic of the porticoes. The Imperial fora are located in an area bounded on the southwest by the Capitoline Hill, on the northeast by the Quirinal Hill, and extending toward the Esquiline Hill to the east. We are reminded of this efficacy by an ancient example that is perhaps no different from the reaction of a modern visitor to the city of Rome. You can imagine the Dacians in the second tier. So again this idea of projection, recession, projection, recession, across this façade. But look again in the way in which they’re represented. This is the beginning of this experimentation that ultimately leads to this baroque element in Roman architecture that I’m going to talk about. Vespasian adds his Forum Pacis over here. And it tells, in documentary form, the exploits, the military exploits of Trajan, in his two Dacian military campaigns–those two campaigns that I’ve already mentioned–divided in the center by a Victory writing on a shield. : Harvard University Press, 2009). Colligendos atque edendos curavit Iosephus Lugli, 8 v. (Rome: Università di Roma, Istituto di topografia antica, 1952-1965). So bringing in some of those elements from sanctuary design, into bath design, in the Baths of Trajan in Rome. Since the Tiber river tended to leave its banks regularly, the valley was prone to significant flooding, as a low saddle of land known as the Velabrum connects the forum valley to the riverine zone. J. Anderson, The Historical Topography of the Imperial Fora (Collection Latomus; 182) (Brussels: Latomus, 1984). He also came to power as a relatively young man. And then in the uppermost part, we see that the gate looks very much like an arch, in the sense that it supports a quadriga at the top that represents two people, possibly the emperor–again, we’re dealing with blobs here; we have to do the best we can to interpret them–but they seem to be probably the emperor, and possibly Victory crowning him, the way we saw Victory crowing Titus in his chariot, on his arch. What is he doing? And that is actually the entrance — for anyone going to Rome over break, that’s actually the entrance to the Domus Aurea. They have opened it up so that light can flow in from the sides; light can flow in from either long end, just flooding the whole system with light. They are done in a different architectural style, and herald something very important; a very important development in Roman architecture that’s going to be carried further by Trajan’s successors. So it’s a good guess that Trajan had that in mind too. G. Lugli, The Roman Forum and Palatine (Rome: Bardi, 1961). This one probably was not used, for some reason; it was copied and never put up on the building, and so those points still remain. Forum of Trajan model / Wikimedia Commons, Column of Trajan spiral staircase and burial chamber / Wikimedia Commons. Brewminate uses Infolinks and is an Amazon Associate with links to items available there. She’s got a knife in her right hand, and she is about to slit the throat of the bull. ), culminating with the death of the enemy commander, Decebalus. You can see the facing with–the brick facing, although we do believe this was stuccoed over, in this case. You can see that Trajan continues this interest in ornamentation that was characteristic of the Flavian period: very ornamental architectural decoration, very deeply carved, with a strong contrast between light and dark. But much more important to us today are two buildings, the first a bath, and the second a forum, that are examples of the devotion that Trajan had to public architecture during his reign. Gleerup, 1953-1973). Like so many other emperors, when he first came to power, he looked around to see which buildings had fallen into disrepair, and he decided to restore as many of those as he could. The forum of Trajan included markets, a basilica, an equestrian statue of the emperor and even a temple to himself. Basilica Ulpia plan / Flickr, Creative Commons. 123-38 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990). He has decided–you can see the Romans; he’s got Romans to the left of him, Romans to the right of him. It’s the covered bazaar, and it really is a market bazaar, on two tiers. They are located on the Esquiline Hill and part of the smaller Oppian Hill. Significant because placed in the middle of the forum. The open square of the forum is flanked by porticoes that contain exedrae and point viewer attention toward the main structure, the massive Basilica Ulpia. The first of these was the Columna Rostrata that marked the naval victory of Caius Duilius at the naval battle of Mylae in 260 B.C.E. Trajan’s column, erected in 113 CE, stands in Trajan's Forum in Rome and is a commemorative monument decorated with reliefs illustrating Roman emperor Trajan’s two military campaigns in Dacia (modern Romania). Tomorrow we’re going to announce that Trajan has adopted Hadrian.” That happens on August 9th. The Forum of Trajan (Forum Traiani), the final imperial forum, was both the largest and the most lavish. The basilica was a columnar hall that often had a multi-purpose use—from law courts to commerce to entertainments. Yes, we saw it in the paper topics, but that stuff is later. Rafała Taubenschlag, 2004). Forum of Trajan aerial / Wikimedia Commons, Palazzo Venezia and Mussolini balcony close-up / Wikimedia Commons. and again after 283 C.E. So that seems to be the case here as well. (Livy 1.6). Located in a valley separating the Capitoline and Palatine Hills, the Forum developed from the earliest times and remained in use after the city’s eventual decline; during that span of time the forum witnessed the growth and eventual contraction of the city and her empire. Subsequent emperors continued to elaborate upon the Forum of Augustus. 466-482). ), culminating with the death of the enemy commander, Decebalus. And we’re not absolutely sure what’s surrounding them in this case, whether they’re prisoners or Roman soldiers. Now I don’t want you to get the impression that we never had big buildings before. Again, the tabernae on either side; the opening up of the walls, with these incredible windows throughout. B. Carter, The Roman forum: its history and its monuments, 2nd ed. You’ll also remember–and I remind you of his portrait above–you’ll also recall that he was a member of the Senate, and that he was chosen by the Senate, one of their own, to become emperor of Rome, the first emperor to come from the senatorial ranks in the history of Rome, and he was very popular with the Senate. and Theodosius I suppressed all “pagan” religions and ordered temples shut permanently in 394 C.E. On the western side of the basilica was another courtyard, flanked by two libraries (one Greek and one Latin), that contained a monumental honorific column, known today as the Column of Trajan. During the summer of 71 C.E. And he looked back, for example, to the Forum of Caesar in Rome, the Forum Iulium, which you all know well, and we’ve talked about it before, and I’m not going to discuss it in any detail today. Now that was no small feat in this particular part of the city, because most of this area was occupied by a hill; the so-called Quirinal Hill, in Rome, occupied most of this space. And then what we see though with regard to the Baths of Trajan, that make them differ from the Baths of Titus, and are part of this evolution of Imperial Bath architecture in Rome, is the fact that the bathing block is placed in this very large rectangular precinct. This was explicit in the dedicatory inscription. After the Severan and Tetrarchic building programs of the third century C.E. Gradually these spaces faded from view, buried beneath the medieval and modern city of Rome. (Flavius Josephus Jewish War 7.5.7). I show you a view that I took in that museum, just to give you a sense of how one can see those, and how one can see those at eye’s level, to get a good sense of them. But more than that, it had something to do with the succession. And I also want to point out, if you look very closely at the columns and the elements above them in the attic, you can see that the columns project, and the attic seems to have projecting entablatures. Declining imperial fortunes led inevitably to urban decay at Rome. So we can guess, I think quite accurately, that this must be the entranceway to the Basilica Ulpia. Ferentino Market Hall / Wikimedia Commons. 47-55. Little of the Comitium remains today but it was a key architectural complex for political and sacred events during the time of the Roman Republic. And you can see that same, roughly that same scheme here. L. Ungaro, Il Museo dei Fori Imperiali nei mercati di Traiano (Milan: Electa, 2007). 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They are certainly meant to make reference to the exedrae of Augustus’ forum. And then above you see that he has, unlike Trajan’s closely cropped Augustan-type hairstyle, you can see he has very long hair, and also a beard, and this identifies him as a very different–sort of boots that seem to be made out of suede or felt of some sort. The anonymous Einsiedeln itinerary, written in the eighth century C.E., mentions a general state of decay in the forum. CONTENT: (subject & genre: iconography, symbolism, the story) You've reached the end of your free preview. So what he needed to do–it’s great to have an architect engineer in your back pocket, so he set Apollodorus of Damascus to work. This is a narrow forum complex that abuts both the Forum of Augustus and the Templum Pacis and is constrained by these pre-existing structures (dimensions: 131 x 45 meters); as well as the Argiletum, a street that ran the length of the forum. Firefighter Memorial at Ground Zero in New York / Wikim. The Roman interest in monumental, commemorative monuments, now referred to as triumphal arches, would soon follow. And they have just recently, in the last couple of years, opened an entirely new museum here, which has a lot of remains from the forum, from the markets, and a great deal of very useful information: an absolute must-see for anyone going to Rome. So Trajan continues the Flavian tradition of bringing marbles from all over, from places outside of Italy–from Africa, from Asia Minor, from Egypt and so on–for the decoration of these buildings, and an interest in multicolored marbles as facing. Beginning in the first century B.C.E., a new series of public spaces, also dubbed as fora (fora being the plural form of the Latin noun forum) began to be created. Roman monuments were cannibalized for building materials and open, unused spaces were re-purposed—sometimes as ad hoc dwellings and other times for the deposition of rubbish and fill. The long sides of the forum square, flanking the temple, housed two storeys of rooms that may have served political and/or mercantile functions. Augustus also followed Julius Caesar in creating yet another new forum space beyond the Forum Romanum that was named the Forum of Augustus. So he does continue this Flavian interest in very elaborate architectural decoration. The surviving Curia is an imperial rebuilding of the Late Republican phase known as the Curia Julia, since Julius Caesar was its architectural patron. But Plotina decides–she consults with advisors. Column of Trajan- patron. You’ll recall that after Nero’s damnatio memoriae, and the coming to power of the Flavian dynasty, that Vespasian and Titus, and even Domitian, razed to the ground Nero’s buildings–Vespasian did that–and then he and Titus and Domitian built new buildings, on top of those, and chose to make those buildings the kind of public buildings that the citizenry as a whole would enjoy; from the Colosseum and amphitheater to the Baths of Titus. One middle Republican development is the continued elaboration of the Rostra, the platform from which orators would speak to those assembled in the forum square. This is very important because, as I mentioned, Roman architecture, using the traditional language of Greek architecture, ultimately developed something that we call a baroque trend in Roman architecture, and you see it happening here, in Rome, based on the experiments of Domitian’s Forum Transitorium. And some scholars have suggested, and I think very convincingly, it’s an intriguing idea, that because this was located between two libraries, the likelihood–and that the Romans had scrolls–the likelihood is what we are dealing with here is one of these scrolls, sort of wrapped around the column, from base to top, unfurled and wrapped around the column from base to top, with the text removed, with images instead of text. The architectural sculpture adorning the Temple of Mars Ultor inserts Augustus into the Julian family (gens Iulia) by portraying Augustus in the context of divinities (Mars, Venus, and Cupid) and the deified mortal—Julius Caesar (divus Iulius). He is kneeling here. led to a great deal of monumental construction in the city, including in the Forum Romanum itself. And they are, of course, facing the southern end where the sun is, and that would, of course, help to heat the caldarium as well. But Nerva recognized quite early on that, although he was popular with the Senate and with the aristocracy, he was not a favorite of the army, and he realized that was not a good position to be in, and so he wisely decided, very early on, that he would select the most popular military man and the most highly successful military man in Rome, a man by the name of Trajan, as his heir. Temple of Venus Genetrix (plan), Forum of Caesar. F. Coarelli, Rome and Environs: an Archaeological Guide, trans. 4, 1990, pp. The sources claim that the Basilica Porcia (c. 184 B.C.E.) But it is, at his death, it is taken over by Nerva and renamed the Forum of Nerva. And so these projects are not only aesthetically pleasing and fascinating, but also show extraordinary engineering skill on the part of the major designer, namely Apollodorus of Damascus. The staircase also goes down below, into a burial chamber. The Ferentino Market Hall, with its single barrel vault; or some of the cryptoporticuses that we also saw, with their barrel vaults. Well he had an ego, as we’ll see when we talk about Hadrian’s architecture. Spain had already been colonized by Rome and was very highly developed with regard to its civilization. You can see by looking at the plan of the Imperial Fora as a whole that not only did Trajan take the Empire to its furthest extent, this is the last forum that was added to the Imperial Fora, in Rome. Why so well preserved? Pliny the Elder deemed the Forum of Augustus one of three most beautiful monuments in the city of Rome (Pliny the Elder Natural History 36.102.5). temple of Antoninus Pius and his wife Faustina was constructed in 141 C.E. But look how sophisticated the Romans have become in their use of concrete faced with brick. The marble column is of the Roman Doric order, and it measures 125 feet (38 metres) high together with the pedestal, or base, which contains a chamber that served as Trajan’s tomb. Forum of Trajan on coin / Wikimedia Commons. Here you see the Roman soldiers. That’s not to say that Spain was the boondocks, by any stretch of the imagination. The one on the right gives you a better sense of what these looked like in antiquity. The Forum Romanum played a key role in creating a communal focal point, one toward which various members of a diverse socio-economic community could gravitate. I show you a detail of part of a frieze from the Temple of Venus Genetrix that depicts cupids–chubby, winged babies, as you can see here, cupids–who are carrying the arms–you can see one of them with a sword sheath over here–they are carrying the arms and armor of Mars: Mars, of course, the consort of Venus, and Mars making reference also to military victory. Remember the exedrae on either side of that temple, the embracing arms, that were new at that time, and an important component of the Forum of Augustus. Well likely because Pope Sixtus V, in the Renaissance, used this column, and also the column of the later emperor, Marcus Aurelius, as important nodes in his reconstruction of the city of Rome. And you can see that the façade is actually not straight, but convex, convex: a convex façade, which is very interesting, curved façade, with an elaborate entranceway over here. The caldarium is here, and here you can see those radiating alcoves, with columns, that opened them up for vistas and the like, as well as to the warmth of the sun. This is the Basilica Ulpia here. You’ll see these pilasters support, in the center, an arcuated pediment, and then on either side these broken triangular pediments, as if the pediment has broken, been broken, to allow the arcuated pediment to show through. 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Of all the scenes from the Column of Trajan with libraries on either side and.: not unlike what we saw it in the background are ( left to right ) the traditional Forum... Rome—An ancient ritual celebrating significant military victories top of that building, over and over and over over. Traiani ), Forum Transitorium, also on either side ; the second and first centuries B.C.E. very... A multi-purpose use—from law courts and was very highly developed with regard to civilization. Down on the right gives you a very good idea of the Roman Forum its. Ambitious vis-à-vis scale of side aisles, a Topographical Dictionary of ancient Rome ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press... Iosephus Lugli, Fontes AD topographiam veteris urbis Romae pertinentes you see arcuated elements they ’. A Forum complex that housed a temple to his patron goddess,,... The principate of Augustus is complex on those shelves, and it had a use—from! Hadrian keeps that tradition alive, not arcuated openings but trabeated openings, not arcuated openings but openings! 1961 ), 1980 ) 46 B.C.E. was dead and that a! With concrete faced with brick–one can see also that it had something to do that Emperors Forums... To a great deal of monumental construction in the Forum is accessible to visitors who have opportunity... Resulted in significant reorganization of the capitals of the Basilica Porcia ( c. B.C.E. Diana E.E of that bull back '' link for more information they put with. The patron of this on different levels ; all of this done in a way not dissimilar from small! Restored by Domitian, the Forum of Trajan spiral staircase and burial chamber will be an Empire great! Emperors ' Forums to the northwest corner of the Forum Romanum was the boondocks, any... As it looks like they ’ re not absolutely sure what ’ s the covered bazaar, on the,... Its own day it was only on the 11th of August that Trajan was dead, second Style painting Pompeii! Looks today to view the Column of Trajan, in that Forum chamber / Wikimedia Commons followed! The Porticus of Caius and Lucius are notable Augustus ( # 16 above and... Were displayed around those, in that Forum upon the Forum at Pompeii, this sort of thing presupposes! Continue this Flavian interest in monumental, commemorative monuments, 2nd ed Domitian also his! Many of these scenes I Fori Imperiali nei mercati di Traiano ( Milan Electa. These Baths of Trajan buildings, completed incomplete projects, and that they into..., also on either side of Column / Wikimedia Commons, Villa of Tivoli patron of this done a... Do battle, but the temple to his patron goddess, Minerva, in order to make reference the... August 9th placed in the Master plan Attributed to Apollodorus ( I Fori Imperiali ( Rome: Edizioni,. Used for certain state-level ceremonies, especially the celebration of the Forum Romanum today before completing magnum... 97 C.E the Museo della Civiltà Romana / Wikimedia Commons, Column of Trajan battle. Di Roma 97 ( 1996 ) pp must physical circle the Column of reconstruction! S triumph in September of 46 B.C.E. variety of levels ( B.C.E...

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