It is estimated that 20% to 25% of Latter-day Saints were members of polygamous households with the practice involving approximately one third of Mormon women who reached marriageable age. With Brady Hales. 3 Timeline of events. In early October, Legion members burned down Fort Bridger lest it fall into the hands of the army. Members of the Hudson's Bay Company and the British government feared that the Mormons planned to seek refuge on Vancouver Island off the coast of British Columbia. However, they too were critically short of horses and supplies. Everett Cooley (ed. Brigham Young accepted Buchanan's terms and pardon, although he denied Utah had ever rebelled against the United States. Mormons state of mind was further alarmed when they learned in late June 1857 that LDS Apostle Parley P. Pratt had recently been murdered while serving a mission in Arkansas. He was met there by Mormons who took him overland through San Bernardino and Las Vegas, to Salt Lake City on the strenuous southern branch of the California Trail, arriving in February 1858. [11][12], Taking all incidents into account, MacKinnon estimates that approximately 150 people died as a direct result of the year-long Utah War, including the 120 migrants killed at Mountain Meadows. "[37] He promised to stop the Utah Expedition on his own authority, and on September 14 he returned east through the Mormon fortifications then being built in Echo Canyon (see below). Shortly after President James Buchanan was elected as president of the country, one of his … The war is significant to the settlement of the west as it allowed the government to pass two important acts. Their primary concern was to be governed by men of their own choosing rather than "unsympathetic carpetbag appointees" whom they believed would be sent from Washington, D.C. if their region were given territorial status, as was customary. Brigham Young’s response would determine whether Johnston and his men marched into Salt Lake Valley as occupiers or as helpers and protectors of loyal citizens. He also reported that they were ready to burn their homes and destroy their crops, and that the route through Echo Canyon would be a death trap for a large body of troops. The current economic climate has a lot of people talking about the Great Depression. The writ was served by the United States marshal and the prisoner promptly appeared at the state-house where an investigation was held. As it was, July was already far into the campaigning season, and the army and their supply train were unprepared for winter in the Rocky Mountains. At one point, Colonel Alexander mounted roughly 100 men on army mules to combat the Mormon militia. DONALD L. MOORMAN & GENE A. And he had to deal with the "Utah problem." Message from the President of the United States, transmitting reports from the secretaries of state, of war, of the interior, and of the attorney general, relative to the military expedition ordered into the territory of Utah. In 1849, the Mormons proposed that a large part of the territory which they inhabited be incorporated into the United States as the State of Deseret. President Buchanan first decided to appoint a new governor in place of Brigham Young. [15] When gold was discovered in California, in 1848 at Sutter's Mill, which sparked the famous California Gold Rush, thousands of immigrants began moving west on trails that passed directly through territory settled by Mormon pioneers. Senator Sam Houston was vehemently opposed to it and called it, "one of the most fearful calamities that has befallen this country, from its inception to the present moment. Mormon Elias Blackburn recorded in his journal, The roads are crowded with the Saints moving south. Early Mormon pioneers, especially, associated it with the imminence of Christ's Second Coming. Fortunately, the lull in hostilities during the winter provided an opportunity for negotiations, and direct confrontation was avoided. 4 (2018), A DIVISION OF THE UTAH DEPARTMENT OF HERITAGE & ARTS ©2018, William P. Mackinnon, “Thomas L. Kane’s 1858 Utah War Mission: Presidential Ingratitude and Manipulation,” Utah Historical Quarterly 86, no. The Mormon War, otherwise known as the Utah War or Mormon Rebellion, describes the violence surrounding an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in Utah Territory and the U.S. Army, which lasts from March 1857 to July 1858. Another problem faced by the Americans was that many units were landed in the wrong place. In the early morning of October 15, this "jackass cavalry" had a run-in with Lot Smith's command and fired over 30 bullets at the Mormons from 150 yards. From battle lines in Europe and the Pacific, to service on the home front in Utah, veterans remember the final days of conflict and the spontaneous explosion of joy at the end of World War Two in VICTORY! Tomorrow is the sesquicentennial of the start of the Civil War. Major General Stewart Van Vliet of the U.S. Army. Indeed, as the snows melted, approximately 3,000 additional U.S. Army reinforcements set out on the westward trails to resupply and strengthen the Army's presence. [14] In addition, while the Saints sincerely declared their loyalty to the United States and celebrated the Fourth of July every year with unabashed patriotism, they were undisguisedly critical of the federal government, which they felt had driven them out from their homes in the east. Flattop. Young was willing to support Cumming as governor, but he still feared persecution and violence if the army entered Utah. The appointments did not require the approval of the territory's inhabitants. This included permitting Johnston's Army into the Territory. The "Aiken massacre" took place the following month. It was the start of the campaign to liberate Europe and defeat Germany. He interviewed leaders and townspeople and "...attended Sunday services, heard emotional speeches, and saw the Saints raise their hands in a unanimous resolution to guard against any 'invader.'" He planned to buy time for the Mormon settlements to prepare for either battle or evacuation, and create a window for negotiations with the Buchanan Administration. Beginning in 1851, a number of federal officers, some claiming that they feared for their physical safety, left their Utah appointments for the east. The movement may have included the relocation of nearly 30,000 people between March and July. The troops were originally to be led by Gen. William S. Harney. “Utah Reduced Chronic Homelessness by 91%; Here’s How”, cheered NPR. Congress, over almost unanimous Republican opposition, authorized two new volunteer regiments, and Buchanan, Secretary of War John B. Floyd, and Army Chief of Staff Winfield Scott assigned 3,000 additional regular troops to reinforce the Utah Expedition. Brigham Young and other LDS Church leaders believed that the remoteness of Utah would secure the rights of Mormons, and ensure the free practice of their religion. It seems that Kane successfully convinced Young to accept Buchanan's appointment of Cumming as Territorial governor, although Young had expressed his willingness to accept such terms at the very beginning of the crisis. Johnston awaited resupply and reinforcement and prepared to attack the Mormon positions after the spring thaw. By Ardis E. Parshall Special to The Tribune . In early August, Young re-activated the Nauvoo Legion. Dr. John A. Widtsoe, inaugurated as President of the University of Utah in January 1916, had already had a distinguished career as a scientist and educator at the Utah State Agricultural College, and was a recognized authority on the problems of dry-land farming and irrigation. Most visited articles. Daniel H. Wells, lieutenant-general of the Nauvoo legion, instructed Major Joseph Taylor: The Mormons blocked the army's entrance into the Salt Lake Valley, and weakened the U.S. Army by hindering them from receiving provisions.[6]. Lt. Col. Charles Ferguson Smith relieved General Johnston of the command of the Department of Utah in 1860. Young capitulated, at least outwardly. As governor, Cumming soon became more popular with the Mormons than with the military forces that had remained until the outbreak of the Civil War. Young also sent George A. Smith to the settlements of southern Utah to prepare them for action. The next day twenty-four … These stories led many Americans to believe that Mormon leaders were petty tyrants and that Mormons were determined to create a Zionist, polygamous kingdom in the newly acquired territories. Share with: Link: Copy link. Despite this, the confrontation was not bloodless. This monument honors the Utah men who answered the call to protect the mail and telegraph lines along the continental route during the Civil War. President James Buchanan was inaugurated in March 1857. At this time, the leadership of the LDS Church supported polygamy or "plural marriage" as it was called by the Mormons. Utah War, in U.S. history, conflict between Mormons and the U.S. government. This already tense situation was further exacerbated by a period of intense religious revival starting in late 1856 dubbed the "Mormon Reformation.". The Utah War lasted from 1857 to 1858. Many felt that these sensationalized beliefs, along with early communitarian practices of the United Order, also violated the principles of republicanism as well as the philosophy of laissez-faire economics. For instance, from 1853–1855, the territorial supreme court was composed of two non-Mormons and one Mormon. The most cataclysmic conflict in history, World War II reshaped the globe and laid the foundation for the modern world. By 1860 sectional strife split the Democratic Party into northern and southern wings, indirectly leading to the election of Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Add new page. The Utah War (1857–1858), also known as the Utah Expedition, Utah Campaign, Buchanan's Blunder, the Mormon War, or the Mormon Rebellion was an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in the Utah Territory and the armed forces of the United States government. The Utah War (1857–1858), also known as the Utah Expedition, Utah Campaign, Buchanan's Blunder, the Mormon War, or the Mormon Rebellion was an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in the Utah Territory and the armed forces of the United States government.The confrontation lasted from May 1857 to July 1858. Buchanan and the U.S. Congress saw these acts as obstructing, if not subverting, the operation of legitimate institutions of the United States. While Mormons believe in the principles of classical liberalism as found in the U.S. Constitution, Mormon political thought continues to be influenced by a concept dubbed "Theodemocracy." February 26, 1858.--Referred to the Committee on territories", http://www.archive.org/details/utahexpeditionme00unitrich, Journal of Discourses Delivered by President Brigham Young, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others, "Loose in the Stacks: A Half-Century with the Utah War and Its Legacy", http://web.archive.org/web/20070616115523/http://www.dialoguejournal.com/excerpts/4001.pdf, "Utah War Broke Hold Mormons Had on Utah", http://historytogo.utah.gov/salt_lake_tribune/centennial_celebration/072395.html, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/docviewer.exe?CISOROOT=/NCMP1847-1877&CISOPTR=2905, http://history.lds.org/overlandtravels/trailExcerptMulti?lang=eng&sourceId=4852, "Utah Territory: Message of the President of the United States, Communication, in Compliance with a Resolution of the House, Copies of Correspondence Relative to the Condition of Affairs in the Territory of Utah ...", Donna Ramos, "Utah War: U.S. Government Versus Mormon Settlers", Length of U.S. participation in major wars, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Utah_War?oldid=5346141. However, President Abraham Lincoln did not enforce these laws; instead Lincoln gave Brigham Young tacit permission to ignore the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act in exchange for not becoming involved with the American Civil War. Use these resources to follow the action from the invasion of Poland to the dropping of the atom bomb. Ives was instructed to proceed with extreme caution, since treacherous Mormons might already be lurking on the Colorado above Yuma. They smiled. However, both of these non-Mormons were well respected in the Latter-day Saint community, and were genuinely mourned upon their deaths. All LDS missionaries serving in the United States and Europe were recalled. The Utah War. The Mormons were pleased by the appointment, but gradually the amicable relationship between Mormons and the federal government broke down. An army advancing up the Colorado River would cut off this escape route. Here's what we can learn from the 1918 flu. Cumming was courteously received by Young and the Utah citizenry in mid-April, and was shortly installed in his new office. During the war, Lot Smith and the Nauvoo Legion burned roughly fifty-two wagons belonging to outfitters Russell, Majors and Waddell. Utah World War I Commission. [44], Hamblin's group made direct contact with Ives expedition by sending Thaïes Haskell, to hail the steamer's crew from the bank while the other Mormons remained in hiding. Van Vliet arrived in Salt Lake City on September 8. failing to provide an adequate resupply train for the winter. The lives of all who took part in the war were changed deeply, for better or worse--and so were the lives of many who did not actually go to war but were affected indirectly. In Buchanan's State of the Union address earlier in the month, he had taken a hard stand against the Mormon rebellion, and had actually asked Congress to enlarge the size of the regular army to deal with the crisis. However, the Bannock and Shoshone raid against Fort Limhi in February 1858 blocked this northern retreat. Library of Congress. The Democrats believed that American attitudes toward polygamy had the potential of derailing the compromise on slavery. [36] Nevertheless, Van Vliet told Young that he believed that the Mormons "have been lied about the worst of any people I ever saw. Utah Beach, the westernmost of the five landing areas of the Normandy Invasion of World War II. The Nauvoo Legion fortified the narrowest sections of the canyon in case the army attempted to break through. Meanwhile, the Mormon communities were called upon to equip a thousand men for duty in the one hundred miles of mountains that separated Camp Scott and Great Salt Lake City. On the other hand, the Mormons had no patience for the federal domination entailed in territorial status, and often showed defiance towards the representatives of the federal government. The Old Spanish Trail, the southern route into California. [44], The journals of members of the Ives expedition as well as the Mormons from Hamblin's group attest to the tension and war hysteria among both the US Army and the Mormons in these remote territories.[44]. The Latter-day Saints lost control of the executive branch and the federal district courts, but maintained political authority in the Territorial Legislature and the powerful probate courts. Colonel Johnston took command of the combined U.S. forces in early November, but by this time the command was hampered by a lack of supplies, animals, and the early onset of winter. The Germans were able to regroup and launched a failed but determined counter-offensive in the "[19] The Republicans linked the Democratic principle of popular sovereignty to the acceptance of polygamy in Utah, and turned this accusation into a formidable political weapon. Congress saw right through what President Buchanan was trying to do, and strongly opposed the Utah War. This activity led to a variety of other changes that fundamentally affected the cultural and political life of the state. Firmage, Edwin Brown; Mangrum, Richard Collin (2001). September 7, 1857: Mountain Meadows Attack. [55] In March 1863, Judge Kinney issued a writ against Young for violation of the Suppression of Polygamy Act. Peter Crawley, "The Constitution of the State of Deseret". When Johnston’s army marched through a deserted Salt Lake City on 26 June 1858 and then went on to build Camp Floyd forty miles to the southwest, the Utah War was over. Rather than engaging the enemy directly, Mormon strategy was one of hindering and weakening them. 4 (2018). The commission offered a free pardon to the Mormons for any acts incident to the conflict if they would submit to government authority. While their husbands and fathers were in the army, Iowa women ran the farms and the stores. Under his authority as governor, Young declared martial law and deployed the local militia, the Nauvoo Legion, to delay the troops. Share. The government conducted a war surplus sale, which greatly enriched the Utah economy. The commissioners further assured that the government would not interfere with their religion. [31] Conversing with Van Vliet, Young denied complicity in the destruction of the law offices of U.S. Federal Judge Stiles and expressed concern that he (Young) might suffer the same fate as the previous Mormon leader, Joseph Smith, to which Van Vliet replied, "I do not think it is the intention of the government to arrest you," said Van Vliet, "but to install a new governor of the territory". "[41] It also commanded that "all the forces in said Territory hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment's notice to repel any and all such invasion. 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